Development of Land and Water Resources Plan for a Small Watershed in Chhattisgarh

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M. P. Tripathi, Dhiraj Khalkho and Shilpi Rani Bhattacharya
A study on planning of land and water resources for a small agricultural watershed of Mungeli district in Chhattisgarh was conducted in the Department of Soil and Water Engineering, SVCAET & RS, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, IGKV, Raipur during the year 2015-16. This study deals with the use of modern tools and technology for micro level land and water resource planning. Tesua watershed of Mungeli district was selected in this study. The Tesua watershed covers an area of 279.7 km2 and is bounded by North latitudes 21˚ 56̍ 30̎ to 22 ˚ 09̍ 30̎ and East longitudes 81˚ 28̍ 30̎ to 80 ˚ 45̍ 30̎ with intended boundary falling in Survey of India topographic map no. 64G09, 64G13, 64F12 and 64F16 on 1:50,000 scale. Average annual rainfall of study area is reported to be 973 mm. The minimum temperature during in November-January was about 28˚ C to 30˚ C. The maximum temperature ranges between the 40˚ C to 48˚ C during April-May. The predominant soil of watershed is sandy clay loam; sandy loam, loam and clay loam are also found in the watershed. Based on analysis of agro meteorological, hydrological and geomorphological data, it was found that, the Tesua watershed consists of 4th order stream network. Total length, bifurcation ratio and drainage density was found to be 179.25 km, 3.7 and 0.64, respectively. Cadastral level land use plan was developed based on the suitable farming situations, soil texture, topography and current land use pattern. It was found that 2538.3 ha comprising of current fallow under matasi farming situation, 178.16 ha comprising of current fallow under Dorsa farming situation and 0.347 ha of current fallow under kanhar farming situation can be brought under cultivation. Water resource plan was developed based on the surface and ground water availability. On the basis of estimate it was found that 41.02 Mm³ of water can be stored and recharged by the Water Harvesting Structure (WHS) and can support 2716.75 ha of additional crop area. Based on superimposing technique (overlaying) of various thematic maps different water harvesting and recharge structures such as percolation tank (59 nos.), check dam (126 nos.) for storage, check dam (21 nos.) for ground water recharge and farm ponds (341 nos.) are proposed at appropriate locations in the Tesua watershed of Mungeli district of Chhattisgarh state. On the basis of this study it can be concluded that the modern tools and technology can successfully be adopted for micro level land and water resources planning of a small agricultural watershed.
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